Monday, August 19, 2013

New Era For Old Wolfscratch

The Steve Tate decades begin: 
By Charlene Terrell

Steve and Lucille Tate in the early days.
When the other potential heirs discovered that Sam Tate had deeded thousands of Wolfscratch acres to the children of Walter Emmett Tate, they were very angry. The animosity deepened when Sam Tate’s will was read and rifts quickly developed in the Tate family, isolating Walt Tate’s widow and children. Jealously soon turned to hatred and Steve Tate, by words and deeds, did nothing to lessen the tension.

However, Steve Tate and his mother and siblings did not immediately benefit from Sam Tate’s will. Since the anticipated sale of Georgia Marble Company stock did not materialize, there was no cash to fund the bequests. Moreover, Sam Tate’s estate was soon declared insolvent and under a court order dated May 22, 1941, Ernest Hudson and L.M. Blair were appointed receivers of the estate.

The receivers quickly challenged the validity of the deed Sam Tate executed prior to his death giving the Wolfscratch property to Steve Tate and his family. Ultimately Hudson and Blair required Steve to pay ten thousand dollars for “all of the lake property of 6,229 acres.” Further negotiations resulted in Steve paying five thousand dollars and executing a note for the balance. Only then did the receivers grant a quit-claim deed to Walt Tate’s heirs.

A Family Divided 

Steve was very bitter toward the other heirs because he believed they were behind the receivers’ action. The other heirs were bitter because they felt that Steve paid far too little for the Wolfscratch land. Little did they know that Steve’s next goal was to seize control of the S.C. Tate Estate by becoming the sole executor.

He told one associate that he might have to wait until the Tate’s had another big funeral, but that he would become the next executor of the estate. Steve believed that if he could take control of the estate, he could then maneuver Georgia Marble Company to his great benefit.

Steve Tate’s Other Interests 

Steve was typically outspoken and he delighted in provoking others to wrath. Manipulating people to his advantage was an amusing game to Steve and it was one he played with great relish. His favorite personal motto was: “I’d rather beat a man out of a dollar than to make a hundred dollars honestly.”
This blatant philosophy went hand in hand with Steve’s quest for power and money; however, Steve could be charming and he was a marvelous raconteur. People often liked him in spite of his professed con-man intentions. Evidence of this was Steve’s election to the Georgia Senate where he served from 1933-35.
Steve Tate holds a kerosene lamp as "Miss REA" blows out the flame, symbolic of the disuse of lamps and candles in favor of modern electric lights.
The year before Sam Tate died, the charter for the Amicalola Electric Membership was approved and Steve Tate was one of the charter members. Steve was very interested in the rural electrification program and saw it as an enormous boon to this area. He rapidly became a leader in the program and became president of the Amicalola EMC.
Steve Tate (far right) at the First National RECA Convention in St. Louis, January 19-20, 1943.
Georgia Marble Has New Ownership 

By the time Steve Tate settled the balance of the debt with Hudson and Blair on September 23, 1941, The Georgia Marble Company was controlled by new ownership. After Sam Tate’s death, banks had quickly moved to foreclose on their mortgages. At a public auction in April 1941, the stock of The Georgia Marble Company was purchased by a syndicate of Atlanta businessmen who joined together to form a holding company.

The new board of directors included Alex Anderson, C.H. Chandler, Jr., Clement A. Evans, Wilbur Glenn, Granger Hansell, Hal Litchfield, I.P. Morton, James D. Robinson, Jr., L.E. Tate and J.R. Cowan. Mr. Cowan, former President of Ross-Republic Marble Company of Knoxville, Tennessee, became executive vice-president of the organization.

This new board faced enormous problems. Although Sam Tate had guided the company thorough the worst depression the country had ever known, the 1930s had exacted a high toll. Furthermore, Tate’s last years of illness left Georgia Marble Company without effective leadership much of the time.

The Georgia Marble Company owned property jointly with the S.C. Tate Estate, producing a very confusing and undesirable situation for the new holding company. When they tried to sort things out, they found the affairs of Georgia Marble and those of the estate to be hopelessly entwined, making them a corporate version of Siamese twins. The board agreed that the two had to be separated, but everyone realized the division could not take place without painful consequences.

The company also had the welfare of the workers to consider. The new stockholders did not want to lose longtime workers or to displace and alienate their families.

Jim Cowan tried to rebuild the company but some asset sales were necessary. The Marietta plant was sold along with some heavy equipment. The marble school building at Tate was turned over to the local school district for a one thousand dollar promissory note.

Meanwhile Sam Tate’s brother Luke remained on the board, but he complained that he did not receive the same respect accorded him in by gone days. He was most upset because he felt his views were not valued by the new management. Luke Tate did not agree with Jim Cowan on many things and Tate frequently visited Cowan’s office and insisted that he drop whatever he was doing to debate the merits of new policies enacted by the current board versus the former policies of Brer Sam, which Luke Tate considered to be vastly superior.

Cowan finally told him that Sam Tate’s day was over and that as long as he was president, he would make his own decisions. Luke Tate persisted in frequent visits and he was soon removed from the board, an action that wounded him deeply.

World War II soon had the same effect as World War I: the bottom dropped out of the marble business and there was little demand for the stone outside its use for memorial markers.
In 1942, Steve Tate entered into a contract with a timber company for the sale and removal of timber from Wolfscratch land. Incredibly, Steve had persuaded his sister and mother to sign powers of attorney and, in some cases, blank deeds. They had no idea their brother had used these documents to take sole control of their holdings. They believed him when he said he was “managing their joint assets.” When his little brother (called Little Sam) entered the military at age 18, Steve convinced him to sign a broad power of attorney. Steve told his brother that he needed to act in his behalf while he was gone.

As timber was cut on Wolfscratch land Steve Tate also directed the timber cutters to cut trees on land belonging to Georgia Marble. A great deal of timber belonging to the company was cut before it came to the attention of Jim Cowan. He was enraged and a long and bitter dispute between Cowan and Steve Tate began.

First, Cowan responded by sending a letter to Steve’s mother Bessie Tate, giving her 90 days to vacate the house she occupied that was owned by Georgia Marble Company. Steve and Lucille Tate received a similar notice. Steve managed to acquire the house where his mother lived, preventing her eviction; however, he and Lucille decided to move to Wolfscratch and live in the big home built earlier for John Riis and his family during the Sam Tate era. Several heirs under the S.C. Tate will joined the fray by telling Lucille that it was just as well that they were leaving because she and Steve were “a bad influence in the community.” Lucille’s feelings were deeply hurt, but Steve responded by vowing to get even.

Lucille did not relish a move to the isolated Wolfscratch area that was still a wilderness. She feared that Steve would be away much of the time, leaving her alone. Steve was not concerned about the move at all. He was too busy plotting his revenge against Jim Cowan and The Georgia Marble Company
“Somewhere down the road, I’ll get ‘em!” Steve said again and again. His promise of revenge worried Lucille most of all and it was with a heavy heart that she packed for the move, scheduled for March 1942. Before they could leave Tate, Pickens County was hit with a late winter snowstorm on March 2. Drifts soon accumulated up to 18 inches, making roads impassable. Snow or no snow, Lucille could bear the tension in Tate no longer. At Steve’s urging, she left for New Orleans to spend 10 days with her parents. When she returned, the snow had melted and they moved at last.

The end of the Sam Tate years
Sam Tate reclining on a chaise lounge at the pink marble mansion shortly before his death. The child is the daughter of Sam Tate's niece, Margaret Tate Benton.
By Charlene Terrell

Dottie Brooks Tate Remembers Meeting Sam Tate 

William Byrd Tate, Jr., son of Dr. William Byrd Tate and Virginia Collier Hart Tate was one of Sam Tate’s younger cousins. Young Bill Tate was a friendly, likable man who got along well with the entire Tate clan. He was engaged to marry Dorothy Brooks of Virginia who had been living in New York where she was a model for a famous New York agency. She and Bill met on a blind date and became engaged after a whirlwind courtship of only 10 dates.

Dottie Brooks (Tate) and Bill Tate during their courtship. This photo was taken at the Connahaynee Lodge that was built on Burnt Mountain by Sam Tate. The lodge was destroyed by fire several years later.
After their engagement, Bill took his fiancée, whom everyone called Dottie, to meet his family at Tate. (Bill lived with his mother in Marietta. His father died at an early age.)

Years later, Dottie recalled Bill’s instructions to her: Bill said, “Dottie, I want you to really dress up because I want to take you to meet all the folks.

“Well,” Dottie said, “I’d been living in New York City, so I took him very seriously. I put on my black dress and a string of pearls. At that time, a popular hairdo was to wear the hair in a roll all around, so I fixed my hair that way and put on a little hat with a veil. I also wore my fox fur which my brother Reg had given me. I think I dressed up a little bit more than Bill had intended, but anyway he took me over to the pink mansion.

“We walked in and the grandest looking black fellow met us at the entrance. He worked for Brer Sam and he was dressed up in a white coat, black pants and black tie. When he first opened the door, he said, ‘Why, hello Mr. Bill! Do come right in.’

“You see,” Dottie explained, “everybody loved Bill – even the servants. He treated everybody just the same. Bill introduced me to the servant whom Bill called Temp.

“Temp went to Brer Sam’s bedroom on the main floor of the house and told him we were there. He sent word for us to come right in to see him. I remember that so well.

“When we met Brer Sam, he was sick with cancer and he was lying in a gorgeous carved Rice bed. Right up against the wall was a lovely Chippendale chest with this exquisite mirror over it and a highboy on the other side. There was a carved mantel with two Chippendale chairs on either side of the fireplace.

“When we walked in, there sat “Miss Bessie” Tate and Little Sam. Walt Tate was standing by the fireplace with his elbow on the mantelpiece. Sam’s sister Florrie was there – she was also called ‘Toby.’ So, I met the whole family. While we were chatting, the servant brought Brer Sam’s lunch on a tray.

“To my surprise, Brer Sam told everybody they were to be excused, but he wanted me to stay! He said, ‘I want Miss Dorothy to feed me my lunch.’

“Of course, I was happy to do that. I sat on his bed and fed him his lunch. I remember how sick he looked, but he was still quite handsome. He was a big man and had that snow-white hair. In Bill’s later years, I thought he looked a lot like Brer Sam,” Dottie said.

(Note: Dottie and Bill Tate built a home at Big Canoe in the earliest days of the development. Bill is deceased but Dottie still lives here. She and her late husband were quite active in the early years and Dottie continued to be active until declining health prevented her from doing so. She remains a very much beloved Big Canoe resident.)

Sam Tate Attempts a Sale of His Holdings in Georgia Marble 

By 1937, Sam Tate focused his flagging energy on selling his stock in The Georgia Marble Company. He met with several prospective buyers, but none came through with the money. Tate’s cash reserves had dwindled and creditors threatened to force him into bankruptcy, a totally unacceptable disgrace. Sam Tate spent hours itemizing his assets and trying to decide how and when to dispose of his vast acreage. Steve Tate had shown quite an interest in the Wolfscratch land and Sam believed Steve was probably clever enough to revive his earlier plans for the mountain property. What he failed to realize was that this belief had been planted in his mind by Steve Tate during their lengthy conversations.

When Sam Tate approached Steve with the idea that he might deed the Wolfscratch property to Steve, Steve’s sister Margaret and his little brother Sam II, Steve seemed very pleased. However, Sam Tate did not indicate when he would make the bequest.

Another Tate Family Loss 

While Sam and Steve discussed business, it was pleasure as usual for Walter Emmett Tate who still loved to party. (Walter Tate was Sam’s brother and Steve’s father.) Walter Tate spent most weekends in drinking and revelry with his cronies. .On December 14, 1937, Walt and a couple or friends had been drinking and partying and on the way back to Pickens County, the driver lost control of the car. All survived except Walter Tate who died in the crash. He was one week away from his 60th birthday
Word of Walter Tate’s death reached the pink marble mansion within the hour and Sam Tate was stunned and crushed by the news, which came a short time before his cousin Bill Tate’s scheduled marriage to Dorothy Brooks. When Bill and Dottie heard the news, they graciously offered to postpone the ceremony, but Bessie Tate wouldn’t hear of it. She insisted that the service continue right on schedule. Although Sam Tate was low with grief, “Miss Bessie” carried on with a steel resolve that family members had never seen before.

Dottie remembered that the wedding did go on and that Lucille Tate walked in at the reception. “I thought she looked gorgeous,” Dottie said. [She was] all dressed up and was wearing exquisite emerald jewelry. I told her she looked wonderful and she said, ‘Really? I’ve been killing pigs all morning!’ That was my introduction to Lucille and I’ll never forget it.

In his will, Walter E. Tate named his brother Sam and his two sons, Stephen C. and Sam II, as executors of his estate, noting that the sons had to be twenty-one years old to qualify. Steve was already thirty, but his little brother (called “Little Sam”) was only fourteen. Steve knew that he would be the sole executor of his father’s estate because Uncle Sam was dying and little brother was too young to qualify. Steve Tate was also confident that when Sam Tate died, he would also have effective control over his father’s share of the S.C. Tate Estate, which granted the lease of the vast marble deposits.
End of an Era 

Steve Tate’s months of attentiveness began to pay off after Walter E. Tate died and on December 27, 1937, Sam Tate conveyed much of his Wolfscratch property to Steve C. Tate, his siblings Margaret and Little Sam and his mother Bessie Tate.

Sam Tate suffered greatly from cancer during 1938 and Steve was constantly at his side, listening to his uncle’s moralizing lectures and offering his own advice when the timing was right. Steve knew how to manipulate people and he used every ounce of this skill on Uncle Sam. Sam Tate was touched by Steve’s show of devotion and in moments of morphine-induced euphoria, he promised Steve he would soon change his will in a manner which would repay Steve for his kindness. Steve gently reminded his uncle that there was no time like the present and that he should go ahead and make the change and get it off his mind. Tate agreed and the will was dictated and typed on September 17, 1938. Twenty-four days later, Sam Tate died on October 11, 1938.
As boxcar loads of flowers were shipped to Pickens County for Sam Tate’s funeral, Hitler marched into Austria prompting President Roosevelt to send an appeal to both Hitler and Mussolini, urging them to settle European problems amicably. His appeal was ignored and anti-Semitic riots continued in Austria, Italy and Germany. On November 9, 1938, twenty-six thousand more Jews were sent to concentration camps and Jewish children were expelled from public schools in Germany and Austria.

White the world held its breath on the eve of another global confrontation, Sam Tate’s new will was probated in common form on November 7, 1938. It was an interesting document, rather informally written, and with generous bequests enumerated. However, the funds for the bequests were contingent on an event that had not occurred: a sale of the Georgia Marble Company’s business or capital stock.

Lucille Manson Tate: End of an Era
Dottie Tate and Lucille Tate
(l-r) Dottie Tate and Lucille Tate (circa 1990). Though only related by marriage, these two beloved Big Canoe ladies were the closest of friends.
By Charlene Terrell

By the time Lucille turned in the $30,000 she found some months after Steve died, the court had appointed William H. Whaley as Receiver and Special Master in the case. Attorney Hal Lindsay advised Lucille to bring the money matter to the attention of the court. It was first brought before District Judge Boyd Sloan for the Northern District of Georgia.  He wrote a letter to Frank A. Hooper, Chief Judge of the United States District Court, Atlanta, giving an explanation:

Mr. Lindsay stated that “…the matter [of cash] had not been reported to the Court earlier because it was not certain this Court would retain the case. Mr. Lindsay further said this was being stated to the Court for its information, and as evidence of their good faith, and he did not believe any action by the Court was necessary at this time.”

Lucille knew that by turning over the money it would mean she had to postpone paying bills, yet she handed over the much-needed cash. In 1961, Special Master Whaley was holding proceeds collected from insurance policies totaling over $80,000 in addition to the money Lucille had turned over to the Court.
Little Sam was very upset when he discovered the existence of yet another deed, recorded after Steve’s death and dated February 19, 1957, purportedly from Sam Tate II to Mrs. L.M. Tate, granting Lucille “…one-third undivided interest in all lands owned jointly by myself and Steve C. Tate as acquired from the estate of Sam Tate, deceased, from Fred Wilbanks, Truman Vandivere [sic], the estate of Bill Brooks, Mrs. Icie Gaddis, Wilburn Long, Perry Heath, Mr. and Mrs. John Worley, Lloyd Byess, J.M. Eaton, Frank Henson and any other lands whether recorded or unrecorded not mentioned herein.”

Little Sam denied under oath that he had ever executed this deed, which was witnessed by L.O. Mosely and notarized by Lillian H. Corley. Mosley was president of the corporation that owned Atlanta’s Henry Grady Hotel and Lillian Corley leased an office in the hotel where she worked as a public stenographer and notary public. On August 31, 1960, Mosely testified in a deposition that he had known Steve Tate for 25 years and had also known his little brother Sam Tate II for the same period. He said Sam Tate II had never signed anything in his presence.

In October 1960 Sam Tate II suffered a heart attack, creating another delay in the proceedings.
In Lucille’s law suit she asked the court to set aside five deeds dated in 1957 before income taxes were assessed but after the investigation of the tax liabilities by the Internal Revenue Service was under way. These were the restrictive deeds in which Steve conveyed away the greater portion of his real estate holdings. The effect of those conveyances was that Lucille, as administratrix, was deprived of the means of paying income taxes, estate taxes, state and county advalorem taxes and the necessary expenses of administering Steve’s estate.

Lucille asked that those conveyances, which in effect made the land unsalable, be set aside in order for her to sell the property and pay all taxes. She also wished to protect and preserve the properties in the meantime and she pled for the court to allow the tax liabilities of Steve’s estate to be separated from her own obligations. The total assessments amounted to $577,000, a large portion of which involved the exchange of properties between Steve C. Tate and Georgia Marble Company in 1955.

However, the United States government took the position that Georgia Marble had conveyed to Steve, in exchange for certain marble rights, water rights and other consideration, properties of much greater value than those received in return from Steve as executor of the S.C. Tate Estate. The government further maintained that Steve benefited solely because Georgia Marble wanted an early renewal of the pre-existing lease of marble rights.

After Steve Tate’s death, The Fulton National Bank of Atlanta became successor executor of the S.C. Tate Estate. When the bank learned that Steve had received 6,200 acres from Georgia Marble around the time the lease was renewed, they cried foul and claimed title to the land, which they viewed as nothing more than a bribe paid to Steve for his execution of the renewal lease on behalf of the estate.

 This bribe was, in Fulton National Bank’s view, a direct violation of Steve’s trust as executor. Fulton National’s legal counsel asked the court’s permission to file an intervention in the case and the court agreed.
Following this setback for Lucille and after more many more petitions, letters, conferences and phone calls, the IRS finally agreed to reduce the original tax by about $400,000; however, if Fulton National Bank proved successful in its claim to the 6,200 acres, a large part of the land holdings would be removed from Steve’s estate.

After more wrangling, an agreement was reached allowing a separate determination of taxes as to Steve C. Tate and Lucille M. Tate. After innumerable conferences between Lucille’s counsel and members of the appellate staff of the IRS, an agreement as to taxes and penalties was reached on February 1, 1963.

Next followed a battle over the amount of estate taxes - The IRS Commissioner proposed an assessment of about $60,000.  Lucille’s attorney filed a re-determination in the tax court and an agreement was reached that reduced estate taxes to $12,000.  Next Lucille found her accountant’s bill to be excessive, in her opinion.  The bill was for $50,000 and a settlement was finally reached for $20,000.

Still unsettled were claims from Sam Tate II and his children, Margaret T. Benton and her children and Mrs. Bessie Tate. Lucille’s attorneys were also very frustrated by what they perceived to be bureaucratic stalling by the IRS, which allowed interest on unpaid taxes to accrue daily. (During one two-year period of inaction by the IRS, approximately $30,000 in interest had accrued.)

On May 2, 1963, the United States, through the Attorney General, suddenly reversed its position, asking the court to set aside the conveyances attacked by Lucille M. Tate. Later that year, all parties – except Fulton National Bank – reached an agreement and all complained that they had given up too much in the compromise.

The final hitch in the agreement was that approval had to be given by the Attorney General or his delegate. This was expected to take less than a week. Three months, 23 days and $3,750 dollars in accrued interest later, the agreement still had not been approved.

Furious, Lucille’s counsel filed another motion and the strong wording is evident of Lucille’s frustration and that of her attorney in paragraph 18, as follows:
The Attorney General, which sending his Special Assistants [in] this case to distant areas, is delaying action upon this contract, which could be approved after no more than brief study and consultation, but instead of giving the matter attention, it is being delayed, day after day; week after week and month after month.
Finally, the agreement was approved; however, during the weeks the property was advertised in the legal notices of local newspapers, various area residents were quite surprised to see that some land claimed by Steve Tate’s estate was their own!  A number of people came forward with valid deeds proving they were the true owners of the acreage in question. For example, in lot 90 of Tract 7, a 25-acre tract was owned by E.L. Sartor who produced deeds to the property dating back to 1917.

 Steve Tate apparently stretched some of the legal descriptions in deeds he had drawn to include his neighbor’s property. Some of the “expanded” deeds may have been used in his dealings with timber companies and timber was probably cut on many acres that Steve did not own.
The sale finally took place on February 2, 1965.  According to a report from William H. Whaley, “The sale was attended by a large crowd and lively interest was manifested in the different tracts. Bidding was active, spirited and vigorous and on each property, numerous bids were received until the property was finally knocked off to the highest bidder.”

When the bidding was over, the properties brought in excess of $600,000. A large portion of the land, including the old Wolfscratch property, was acquired at auction by W.H. and Mildred Langston d/b/a Langston and Company and River Properties, Inc., all of New Jersey.

Lucille Tate also attended the auction and was actively involved in the bidding. She was the highest bidder on Tracts 3 and 4, Tract 3 being the Levi Darnell place, but she was outbid on the Wolfscratch property, which she still called ‘Sconti.’
In 1965, Lucille Manson Tate purchased W.J. Keown’s house at Tate Mountain Estates (a/k/a “Tate”) as well as Keown’s stock in the development. In a history of Tate Mountain Estates, W. Whittier Wright wrote:
Lucille was the widow of Steve Tate and was well-known to…residents of long standing. In the Early Years, she played golf at Tate {Mountain Estates} and entertained the Winship girls at her place [Sconti]. She was a dynamic person, of her own mind and had a way of getting whatever she wanted done accomplished, calling, if needed, on her many connections in Pickens County.”
At the settlement, an additional $18,500 was set aside by the receiver pending the outcome of an appeal by the Fulton National Bank on its intervention. The bank had lost its case on February 12, 1965, but had appealed.

In 1966, Fulton National’s appeal was heard. In Appeal No. 22467, the Fifth Circuit United States Court of Appeals reversed and remanded the decision of the lower court.
In making the decision, the Court stated:
The first duty of an agent is that of loyalty to his trust. He must not put himself in relations which re antagonistic to that of his principal. His duty and interest must not be allowed to conflict. He cannot deal in the business within the scope of his agency for his own benefit, nor is he permitted to compromise himself by attempting to serve two masters having a contrary interest.
The Appellant Court ruled that Steve Tate had violated the fundamental rule that a trustee can make no profit for himself out of the trust estate.  On December 1, 1966, $72,500 was paid to Fulton National Bank, Intervenor and Executor for the Estate of S.C. Tate. This was the complete settlement of Fulton National Bank’s claim to the land Steve took as a personal bribe while he was also representing the S.C. Tate Estate as Executor. Fulton National received their settlement seven years to the day after the Riis House burned.

Steve Tate’s great business coup and carefully staged revenge against Georgia Marble had finally come to naught. A relative summed it up in a paraphrase of an old adage: “Steve won a lot of battles,” he mused, “but he sure lost the war.”
The IRS had intimidated Lucille Tate as nothing had ever done and she retained a deep seated fear and distrust of government bureaucracies for the rest of her life.

After the long trial, Lucille spent much of her time in New Orleans where she had maintained a second home for years. She traveled and entertained often and was never lacking in friends. She kept her adventuresome spirit and enjoyed traveling to remote places. She also spent time at her new home at Tate Mountain Estates. During the 1980's, she returned to the mountains full time and spent only brief intervals at her New Orleans Home.

When she was almost 86, Lucille joined The Friendship Force, an international organization founded to promote peace and understanding between people through citizens exchanges. Lucille embraced The Friendship Force concept with typical enthusiasm and signed up to become a “goodwill ambassador” to Russia in February 1992.

Friends tried to dissuade her, explaining that Moscow in winter would be too cold and too dangerous. Lucille was unmoved. She thought Moscow would be beautiful in the snow and she could not wait to experience it. Upon arrival there, she was a big hit with Muscovites, young and old alike. They could not believe this little snowy-haired woman left her comfortable home to brave Moscow’s winter and other hardships of Russian life. Lucille rated the Moscow trip as one of the top experiences of her long life and enjoyed every minute of it. She was thrilled to meet “real Russian people” and live in a “real Russian home.”

Lucille planned more adventures, including a Friendship Force exchange to China; however, she fell ill in spring of 1993. On May 3, 1993, she died suddenly in an Atlanta hospital after undergoing routine surgery.

Lucille Manson Tate was laid to rest in the Tate Family Cemetery beside Stephen Clayton Tate. She survived her husband by 35 years.

Source: Internet

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