Friday, June 28, 2013

George Franklin Barber

George Franklin Barber (July 31, 1854 – February 17, 1915) was an American architect best known for his residential designs, which he marketed worldwide through a series of mail-order catalogs. One of the most successful domestic architects of the late Victorian period in the United States,  Barber's plans were used for houses in all 50 U.S. states, and in nations as far away as Japan and the Philippines.  Over four dozen Barber houses are individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and several dozen more are listed as part of historic districts.

Barber began designing houses in his native DeKalb, Illinois, in the late 1880's, before permanently moving his base to Knoxville, Tennessee, in 1888. His first widely-circulated catalog, Cottage Souvenir No. 2, contained designs and floor plans for fifty-nine houses, mostly in the Queen Anne style, as well as Barber's architectural philosophy and tips for homebuilders. Later catalogs contained more Colonial designs.  By the time his catalog business ended in 1908, Barber had sold upwards of 20,000 plans.

Barber was the father of Charles I. Barber (1887–1962), who went on to become a successful architect in his own right, and designed a number of notable buildings in the Knoxville area during the first half of the 20th century.  BarberMcMurry, an architectural firm cofounded by Charles Barber in 1915, still operates in Knoxville.


Early life and career

The Charles E. Bradt House, one of Barber's first designs
Barber was born in DeKalb, Illinois, in 1854, the son of Lyman and Cornelia Barrett Barber.   While still a young child, he moved to Marmaton, Kansas, where he lived on the farm of his sister, Olive, and her husband, William Barrett.  By the 1870's, he owned an adjacent farm, where he raised plants which he advertised as "ornamental nursery stock." During this period, he learned architecture through mail-order books, namely George Palliser's American Cottage Homes and technical books published by A.J. Bicknell and Company.  In 1884, Barber patented a nail-holding attachment for hammers.

By the mid-1880's, Barber was back in DeKalb, where he produced his first architectural designs working for his brother's construction firm, Barber and Boardman, Contractors and Builders. In 1887 or early 1888, Barber published The Cottage Souvenir, crudely produced on punched card stock and tied together with a piece of yarn, which contained 14 house plans (a revised edition published shortly afterward contained 18). The earliest buildings constructed from Barber's designs include the Charles E. Bradt House (1887) and the Congregational Church (1888), both in DeKalb. The Bradt house was featured in the March 1888 issue of Carpentry and Building.

Catalog business

The Charles and Anna Drain House (Drain Castle), built in Drain, Oregon between 1893 and 1895.
In late 1888, Barber relocated to Knoxville, Tennessee, in hopes that the city's mountainous climate would be better for his declining health.  He briefly partnered with Minnesota-born architect Martin Parmalee, but the partnership proved unsatisfactory.  In 1892, he established a firm with one of his clients, J.C. White, handling the firm's business aspects.  Barber also became a partner in the Edgewood Land Improvement Company, which was developing a suburb east of Knoxville known as Park City (modern Parkridge).   He designed over a dozen houses for this suburb, including his own house, which still stands at 1635 Washington Avenue, and the W.O. Haworth and F.E. McArthur houses, which also still stand on Washington Avenue, and appeared in some of Barber's catalogs.

In 1890, Barber published The Cottage Souvenir No. 2, which contained 59 house plans, as well as plans for 2 barns, a chapel, a church, 2 storefronts, and several pavilions. This catalog and its subsequent revisions led to an explosion in orders for Barber's firm. Barber houses built during this period include the Jeremiah Nunan House in Jacksonville, Oregon,  the Donnelly House in Mount Dora, Florida,  and the J. Hawkins Hart House in Henderson, Kentucky,  all of which still stand and are listed on the National Register. He also remained active on a local level in Knoxville, with the Romanesque-inspired Isaac Ziegler House on 4th Avenue,  and a house built for his printer, S.B. Newman, which still stands in Old North Knoxville.

Around 1895, Barber parted ways with White and formed a new firm with a new partner, Thomas Kluttz.  That year, Barber began publishing a magazine, American Homes, which advertised the firm's latest house plans, offered tips on landscaping and interior design, and published a multi-part history of architecture by Louisville architect Charles Hite-Smith.  In 1896, the growing firm moved into the Barber-designed French and Roberts Building on Gay Street, with the firm's thirty draftsmen and twenty secretaries occupying an entire floor.

Later career

In the late 1890's and early 1900's, Barber designed a number of elaborate mansions for affluent businessmen, including the home of Carroll Lathrop Post (brother of C. W. Post) in Battle Creek, Michigan, the home of tobacco magnate R. J. Reynolds in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, the home of People's Bank president N.E. Graham in East Brady, Pennsylvania, and one of his grandest designs, the $40,000 "Mount Athos" for Barboursville, Virginia, tycoon Walter G. Newman.
In the early 1900's, Barber began to phase out his mail-order business and with the help of his brother, Manley, focused on Knoxville-area building projects.  He later worked with architects R. F. Graf and John Ryno.  The publication of American Homes was moved to New York in 1902, though Barber remained a regular contributor for several years afterward.  The catalog business was suspended in 1908.  Barber died on February 17, 1915, and is interred with his family in Knoxville's Greenwood Cemetery.


The Queen Anne-style I.W.P. Buchanan House in Lebanon, Tennessee
The bulk of Barber's business followed the "catalog architecture" model popularized by earlier architects such as Palliser. Barber's great innovation was his willingness to personalize his designs for individual clients at moderate cost.  As he wrote in his Cottage Souvenir No. 2, "Write to us concerning any changes wanted in plans, and keep writing till you get what you want. Don't be afraid of writing too often. We are not easily offended."  Though his firms' records no longer survive, it is believed that he sold as many as 20,000 plans in his career.   Since he frequently modified his designs to fit his clients' needs and specifications, his houses are sometimes difficult to attribute with any certainty.

In discussing his architectural philosophy, Barber argued that Nature has "faithfully and accurately adhered to the Divine law of harmony,"  and that no place should adhere more closely to the fundamental principles of nature than one's house.  Barber considered proportion the most important element in architecture, likening it to harmony in music, "without which all else is a failure."  He described ornamentation as the next most important element, as it gives proportion expression. Lastly was "harmony of form," or the relationship of curved and straight lines to one another.
The Robert Covington House in Hazlehurst, Mississippi, one of Barber's later designs
Barber's early designs were modified versions of the Queen Anne style, which Barber liked to enrich with the addition of Romanesque elements.  Barber houses constructed in this period are characterized by features such imposing turrets, projecting windows, verandas flanked by circular pavilions, and Syrian arches. In the latter half of the 1890's, Barber began to offer more plans in the Colonial Revival style. These were often characterized by projecting porticos supported by large columns, symmetrical facades, and flat decks with balustrades. Later Barber catalogs contained Bungalow and Craftsman styles, though few of these were built.

Some have suggested that Barber was the first to sell prefabricated houses in crates, but there is no evidence that he was actually engaged in manufacturing. While he occasionally supplied builders with manufactured windows, doors, staircases and other components, and that a number of millwork companies advertised in Barber's magazine, it is unclear whether entire houses were sold as kits by anyone prior to 1900.

Barber houses today

The John Owings House in Laurens, South Carolina
A revived interest in Barber's work began in the 1970's,  and since then, hundreds of houses built using his plans have been identified. Over four dozen of these have been individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places for their architecture, and several dozen more have been listed as contributing properties in historic districts.  At least four Barber houses— the Isaac Ziegler House, the Jeremiah Nunan House, the John Owings House (Laurens, South Carolina), and Roselawn (Natchitoches, Louisiana)— have been documented by the Historic American Buildings Survey.

Many extant Barber houses are still used as residences, while others house museums, bed and breakfasts, and office space. Barber houses have provided inspiration for Christmas cards, wall hangings, and at least one dollhouse model.   While most of Barber's work was domestic, several notable non-domestic Barber-designed buildings survive. These include the Congregational Church (now DeKalb Foursquare Church) in DeKalb, Illinois,  the Raper Building in Lexington, North Carolina,  and Bartlett Hall at Maryville College.

See also

External links

The George F. Barber Collection at the Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection — contains portraits, old advertisements, and digital copies of some of Barber's catalogs and magazines

Source: Wikipedia

Grape Soda Brands

Citrus Soda Brands

Cola Brands

Source: Wikipedia


Grapette is a grape-flavored soft drink that was first produced and marketed in 1939 by Benjamin "Tyndle" Fooks. Grapette is now produced by Grapette International, and is marketed in the United States by Wal-Mart as part of its Sam's Choice line of soft drinks.

Grapette bottles.png
Five different styles of the Grapette bottle
Typesoft drink
ManufacturerGrapette (1939-1970)
Flavette (USA 1970-1975)
Grapette International (Latin America 1942-2000; 2000-)
Country of originCamden, Arkansas, United States
Introduced1939, 2000
Related productsNuGrape  


Grapette was developed by Benjamin "Tyndle" Fooks when, while working as a traveling salesman selling a product known as "Fooks Flavors", he noticed the popularity of his grape flavor. From this, Fooks, dissatisfied with existing grape sodas on the market, sought to develop a grape soda that tasted the way he believed that a grape soda should taste. Over the course of two years and tens of thousands of taste tests, by 1939, he had developed a flavor that he believed was superior to all other grape sodas available at the time.

To name the drink, Fooks turned to Hubert Owen. Owen and an assistant ran a local contest to come up with a name, but this failed to produce a suitable name. Owen then traveled to Washington, D.C. in 1939 to search the trademark files of the United States Patent Office for a suitable name. Here, it was found that a man named Rube Goldstein owned a trademark for the name "Grapette", "Orangette", and "Lemonette". Further research determined that Goldstein owned a small bottling firm that produced a drink that used one of Fooks' grape flavors, called "Tiny", which it distributed in Virginia and North Carolina, marketed in a six-ounce bottle. Goldstein, however, had never used the Grapette, Orangette, or Lemonette names. In March 1940, Fooks and Owen traveled to Chicago, Illinois to meet with Goldstein. There, they purchased the Grapette, Orangette, and Lemonette names for $500.

Early Marketing

In the spring of 1940, Fooks began marketing his soda in Camden, Arkansas under the name "Grapette".
Typesoft drink
ManufacturerGrapette (1947-1970)
Flavette (USA 1970-1975)
Grapette International (Latin America 1942-2000; 2000-)
Country of originCamden, Arkansas, U.S.
Grapette's first-year sales were quite promising. This was due to Grapette's flavor, as well as Grapette's unique packaging. Most soft drinks at the time were sold in twelve-ounce bottles. Grapette was sold in a six-ounce clear glass bottle, which served to show off the beverage's purple color. With the success in sales, marketing of Grapette was expanded to much of the United States, and the slogan "Thirsty or Not" was developed for use in advertising. In addition, other flavors were developed, such as Orangette, an orange-flavored soda that used a considerable amount of real orange juice, and Lemonette, which contained a large amount of real lemon juice.
Typesoft drink
Typesoft drink
When World War II began, Fooks dropped many of his other brands, such as Botl-O and Sunburst, in order to focus on Grapette. Sales of Grapette continued to soar during the war, despite restrictions and material shortages. Sugar, which was subject to wartime rationing, was obtained by adding water to granulated sugar, thus liquefying it, enabling it to be sold as syrup, which was not subject to rationing.
In 1942, R. Paul May, an Arkansas oil tycoon, persuaded Fooks to allow him to market Grapette in Latin America, citing a lack of soft drink options in the area. May was able to build a good reputation for Grapette in Guatemala, selling not only Grapette, but also Orangette and Lemonette. These brands soon became market leaders. In 1962, the export division of Grapette was reorganized into a separate company, known as Grapette International.

Mr. Cola
Typesoft drink
ManufacturerGrapette (1962-1970)
VariantsMr. Cola Jr.
In 1962, Grapette introduced a line of cola drinks to compete with Coca-Cola under the name of "Mr. Cola". The drink was popular in large part because of its sixteen-ounce bottle. Mr. Cola was also available in ten and twelve-ounce sizes. In 1963, "Lymette" was added to Grapette's family of brands. Lymette, however, never achieved the commercial success of the other brands.

Decline and Retirement

By the 1960's, Fooks believed that he had reached his limit with Grapette, and was ready to move on. By the end of the decade, Fooks had begun talks with groups interested in purchasing Grapette. Fooks ultimately sold Grapette to the Rheingold Corporation in 1970, which marketed the Rheingold, Ruppert-Knickerbocker, and Gablinger's lines of beers, as well as several regional brands of soft drinks in California, New Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Rheingold changed the name of the company from Grapette to Flavette, and relocated the company headquarters to Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Grapette's bottle was changed to one with smooth sides and colored dots. The slogan became "The Juicy Soda". Grapette's advertising model also changed. Previously, advertising was funded by a surcharge on sugar, which was to be spent by the distributor for advertising only. This plan was dropped by Rheingold, placing advertising solely in the hands of Grapette's distributors, resulting in an immediate drop in sales. During this period, Flavette purchased the Dr. Wells soda pop brand and Mason & Mason, Inc., the makers of Mason's Root Beer.

In 1975, Rheingold was purchased by PepsiCo, Inc. in a hostile takeover, acquiring 80% of the company's stock. However, the Federal Trade Commission determined that PepsiCo controlled too many soft drink companies, and thus ordered that PepsiCo divest several prominent brands. When the divestiture was complete in 1977, Grapette was in the hands of The Monarch Beverage Company, which manufactured NuGrape. As Monarch already manufactured a grape soda, it was determined that they did not need a second. Representatives from Monarch flew to Grapette's headquarters and essentially fired the Grapette team. As such, the Grapette name was shelved, and the flavor was retired in the United States.

Despite the brand's retirement in the United States, May retained ownership of Grapette International, and Grapette was still produced internationally, remaining a popular drink. When May died in the early 1970s, control of Grapette International was passed on to May's son-in-law, Brooks Rice.
In the United States, Grapette may have been gone, but it certainly had not been forgotten. Rice had made many offers to buy the American rights to Grapette back from Monarch, but regardless of the amount of money offered, Monarch refused to sell the name.   Despite this setback, Rice continued to grow Grapette's market share elsewhere in the world, with sales in the tens of millions in countries in South America and the Pacific Rim.


Rice had profited by becoming an early investor in a business called Wal-Mart, founded by Sam Walton. Over time, as Wal-Mart grew into a household name, Rice began thinking of ways to partner with Wal-Mart. In 1986, Rice was able to meet with Sam Walton, in order to discuss creating a line of private label soft drinks for Wal-Mart. He was specifically interested in making a grape soda for Wal-Mart. Walton did not waste words in telling Rice what he wanted: "I want Grapette in my stores." While Rice did not have the American rights to the Grapette name, he was able to offer Grapette's flavor, and also promised that if he was able to reacquire the rights for the Grapette name, Wal-Mart could have it.

Ozark Farms

In 1989, nearly three years after the initial meeting, Grapette International began producing a line of soft drinks for Wal-Mart under the Ozark Farms name. The flavors available were cola, lemon-lime, grape, and orange. Each flavor used Fooks' original formulas. Thus Grapette had returned to American shelves, albeit under a new name. However, sales were disappointing, and the Ozark Farms line of soft drinks was discontinued.

Sam's Choice

When Sam Walton died in 1992, Wal-Mart CEO David Glass felt it would be a fitting tribute to Walton to rename Wal-Mart's private label as "Sam's Choice". In 1993, Rice again began manufacturing soft drinks for Wal-Mart, this time under the Sam's Choice brand. Wal-Mart was given exclusive rights to the flavors in the United States. Grapette was relaunched at this time as well, under the name "Sam's Choice Grape". Sam's Choice Grape soon became one of the best-selling grape sodas in the nation, seemingly proving Rice's claim that the flavor was what had made Grapette so popular, and not the drink's famous name.

Revival of Grapette name

In 2000, Rice walked into the Wal-Mart Home Office in Bentonville, Arkansas, in order to personally deliver the news to David Glass: Monarch was finally selling the Grapette name. Rice told Glass, "This is a tribute to you and Sam for having the vision on this product."

By late 2004, the Grapette and Orangette names (and original logotypes) had been incorporated into the Sam's Choice line of soft drinks, and had completely replaced the Sam's Choice Grape and Sam's Choice Orange brands in Wal-Mart stores.

See also

External links

Source: Wikipedia

The Walton Family

This article is about the family of Sam and Bud Walton, founders of Wal-Mart.

The Walton Family is the richest family in the world, their wealth inherited from Bud and Sam Walton, founders of the world's largest retailer, Wal-Mart. The five most prominent members (Jim, John (d. 2005), Rob, Alice, and Helen (d. 2007)) have consistently been in the top ten of the Forbes 400 since 2001, although Helen dropped to #11 in 2006, probably in part due to her extensive philanthropy. Christy Walton took her husband John's place after his death in 2005.

Collectively, the Waltons control over 48% of the company, and are worth a combined total of $115.7 billion (as of March 2013), valuing them as the wealthiest family in the world.

Walton Family Tree

Samuel Robson (Rob) Walton
(b. 1944)
three children
Carolyn Funk (divorced)


John Thomas Walton
(8 October 1946 – 27 June 2005)
Luke Walton
Samuel Moore (Sam) Walton
(29 March 1918 – 6 April 1992)
Christy Walton
Helen Robson Kemper
(3 December 1919 - 19 April 2007)
Alice Louise Walton
(b. 7 October 1949)

unknown (divorced)


James Carr (Jim) Walton
(b. 1948)
four children
Lynne McNabb


Ann Walton Kroenke
(b. 1949)
Josh Kroenke
James Lawrence (“Bud”) Walton
(20 December 1921 – 21 March 1995)
Whitney Kroenke Burditt
Audrey Walton
E. Stanley Kroenke


Nancy Walton Laurie
(b. 1952)
Elizabeth Paige Laurie
Bill Laurie

Walton family fortune

The Walton family fortune as of March 2013 published by Forbes.
Total: US$115.7 billion

Source: Wikipedia