Tuesday, January 10, 2017

20 Classic Cars You Probably Don’t Know (But Should)

1966 Oldsmobile Toronado
1966 Oldsmobile Toronado

The 1966 Toronado was the first American-build front-wheel-drive car in three decades and there was nothing else like it when it was introduced in 1965.

Dubbed as a ‘personal luxury car’ it featured a sleek profile and an extremely masculine styling that perfectly complemented its 425-cubic-inch V8 engine that generated 385 hp and propelled the 4,000-lb beast to a top speed of 120 mph.

The 7.0-liter V8 was mated to GM’s new Turbo-Hydramatic three-speed automatic that sent power from the engine to the front differential. Half shafts then directed the power to the front wheels.
In this four-wheel-drive form, the transmission was called the TH425 which featured a torque converter connected to the planetary gearset by a chain-drive system called the Hy-Vo.

The first generation Toronado lasted from 1996 to 1970. Olds used the Toronado name for 26 years, spanning four generations. Annual updates gave each model year a unique look, particularly up front. Interior styling also changed to give drivers something new to sit behind.

The 1966 model featured a pointed grille and a long nose. The headlights were of the popup variety and the front fenders stretched past the grille. These gave the car a sleek and a one-of-a-kind look.

1969 Dodge Coronet Super Bee 426 Hemi

1969 Dodge Coronet Super Bee 426 Hemi

The Super Bee name has been associated with the Dodge Charger, but the original Super Bee was later used on the Coronet, which was based on the Plymouth Road Runner. The car was produced from 1968 to 1970.

The name “Super Bee” was derived from the “B” Body designation pertinent to the mid-sized cars of Chrysler, including the Charger and the Road Runner. The design of the original Super Bee was inspired by the 1968 Coronet convertible, while the car’s cabin was crafted by the Alexander Brothers.

Although the Super Bee and the Road Runner are similar in terms of looks, the former was slightly heavier  and rode on a 117-inch wheelbase compared to the latter’s 116-inch wheelbase. Aside from trivial external variations like bigger rear wheel openings, fancier grilles, bumblebee tailstripe, and taillight ornamentation, the Super Bee also made use of diecast chrome-plated “Bee” medallions.

The 1968 model was only available as a two-door coupe with two engine choices, the base 335 horsepower 383 Magnum, and the 426 Hemi that blasted out 425 hp. A hardtop version joined the coupe in 1969 and an optional twin-scooped air induction hood became available. This option was called the “Ramcharger”and was the counterpart to the Road Runner’s “Coyote Duster” air induction hood.

A “six-pack” version of Dodge’s 440 cubic-inch engine was added mid-year. These special order 1969 1/2 Super Bees were referred to as A12 M-code cars. The A12 package equipped the cars with a Dana 60 axle, a ‘lift off’ flat black scooped hood, heavy duty automatic or a four-speed gearbox.

Other features of the A12 package included heavy duty internal engine components, 11-inch drum brakes, and black steel rims wrapped in high performance G-70 15″ tires. The 1969 model year included the base 383 Magnum, the 440 Six Pack, and the 426 Hemi.

1971 Stutz Blackhawk
1971 Stutz Blackhawk

1971 was the first production year and generation of the Blackhawk, an American luxury car manufactured through 1987. These hand-crafted cars were marketed as pure luxury with an initial price tag of $22,500. Each of these classic cars took approximately 1,500 hours to build.

The Blackhawk was powered by Pontiac’s 7.5-liter V8 mated to a General Motors TH400 three-speed automatic. With the engine tuned to generate 425 hp and 420 ft·lb of torque, the 5000 lb Blackhawk can accelerate from standstill to 60 mph in 8.4 seconds with a top speed of 130 mph.

Aside from the name, the car bears no other other resemblance to the original Blackhawk. The Stutz Motor Company was given a new lease on life in 1968 by James O’Donnell, a banker from New York.
He collaborated with retired Chrysler designer Virgil Exner who penned the new Blackhawk. Exner’s style included a a massive grille, freestanding headlights, and a spare tire that protruded through the trunk lid. Ghia prototyped the new Blackhawk in Italy to the tune of $300,000.

The Blackhawk made its debut in early 1970 at the Waldorf Astoria in New York City. All early models were coupes, but rare sedans were built later. The convertible versions were known as Bearcat and D’Italia. Stutz Blackhawks were the preferred rides among elite entertainers of the day.

By 1976 Stutz had sold a total of 205 Blackhawks and six units were hand-built every month in Italy and then shipped to the United States. By 1980, 350 Blackhawks had been sold and when production ceased in 1987, approximately 500 to 600 of these classic cars had been produced.

1958 Buick Century Caballero Station Wagon
1958 Buick Caballero Station Wagon

The Caballero is one of the automotive world’s rarest and most expensive wagon ever produced. It was only manufactured from 1957 to 1958 and was called a ‘pillar-less’ hardtop. Buick positioned it near the upper end of the market.

Under the hood was the company’s new ‘Nailhead’ V8 that cranked out 300 hp on the Century models, and 325 hp with the optional ‘tri-power’ carburetion. The engine is mated to a Dynaflow automatic gearbox with a new Variable Pitch feature. These classic cars were quick and endowed with an extensive list of equipment and luxury amenities.

With a design inspired by the Centurion’s 1956 ‘dream car’, Buick released an all-new line of automobiles for 1957. The cars were easily distinguished with their elegant interpretation of Buick’s conventional ‘Sweep Spear’ side trim, dipper rear beltline, and full wheel openings.

Vertical grille bars, ‘Venti-Port’ trims on the front fenders, and vertical rear taillights were all in keeping with the latest Buick design trends at the time. The wagon has a curb weight of 2120 kg, but it has decent acceleration and fuel economy rating.

It can go from zero to 60 miles per hour in 9.9 seconds and blitzes the quarter mile in 17.4 seconds. Theoretical top speed has been pegged at 116 mph.

1969 Marcos 3.0 GT
1969 Marcos 3.0 GT

New at the 1968 London Show was the more potent Marcos 3-liter. Equipped with the double-carb Ford Essex V6 and transmission from the Ford Zodiac, production kicked off in January 1969.

Maximum power is 140 bhp and aside from the badging, the car is easily recognized by the huge central hood bulge that was needed to clear the massive engine.

The 3-liter came with a 4-speed manual with a Laycock-de-Normanville Overdrive for the third and fourth gears. A twin-carbureted 3-liter Volvo B30 straight-six was offered in December 1969. Two years later, 11 or 12 cars were powered by the 150 bhp Triumph 2.5-liter straight-six.

These engines were called the Marcos 2.5-liter. Since the hood was a close fit over the bigger engines, a corresponding variation in the hood design was needed with regard to the modifications intended to clear engine air intakes.

All inline-sixes required an angular bulge right of center on the hood in order to clear the carburetors. Later in 1969, V6 cars, like their four-cylinder counterparts, were given a new steel chassis. The original monocoque chassis was made of high-grade plywood. Either 100 or 119 of these wood-chassied six-cylinder cars were produced.

The Ford V6 variant accelerated to over 120 mph, but the Volvo-engined model wasn’t far behind it. With sales in the United States going strong, production of the Marcos 3.0 was up to three per week so the automaker had to invest in a larger facility in 1969.

Cars for the North American market were powered by Volvo’s inline-six cylinder, 3 liter engines bolted to Borg-Warner Type 35 automatic transmissions. They have a higher ride height and no headlight covers – all of these were made to attain US road certification.

1969 Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II
1969 Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II

The Spoiler II was a special edition model built to satisfy the burgeoning performance car market of the 1960s. It was was specifically designed and developed to meet NASCAR’s certification requirement and go toe-to-toe against Ford’s Torino Talladega.

The car was based on the Mercury Cyclone “Sportsroof” two-door hardtop and it was only sold to the public because homologation rules required at least 500 cars (the minimum back in 1969) be produced and offered for sale to the public. All production models were built during the first few weeks of 1969.

The design featured a flush-mounted grille and a stretched, tapered nose. The car also had re-rolled rocker panels so it could be lowered without violating the ride-height requirements of NASCAR. Two trim packages were offered: the Cale Yarborough Specials in Candy Apple Red over Wimbledon White, and the Dan Gurney Special in Presidential Blue and Wimbledon White.

The exact number of Cyclone Spoiler IIs that were produced is unknown, but it is believed to be somewhere between 300 and 500. These classic cars were powered by the 351 cubic-inch Windsor engine rated at 290 horsepower. Also produced was a standard-nosed model called Cyclone Spoiler, which was available with the same trim packages.

A sleeker front end was added to make the Spoiler II more aerodynamic at high speeds. Regular production Cyclones had an insert grille and headlights, but the Spoiler II had the nose replaced because it fared poorly in wind tunnel tests.

In a secret design move, the car’s rocker panels were reshaped and rolled so Mercury teams can run their racing cars approximately an inch closer to the ground while remaining within NASCAR regulations. This also significantly improved the car’s top speed by lowering its center of gravity and reducing wind resistance.

1965 Rambler Marlin
1965 Rambler Marlin

American Motors advertised the Marlin as the latest addition to its self-designed “Sensible Spectaculars” model range. Based on the 1964 Rambler Tarpon, the Marlin was officially introduced to the public on February 10, 1965 and released to dealer showrooms on March 19.

New car introductions back in the 1960s were a big deal and were frequently accompanied by extensive publicity and special invitations. As such, the Marlin was advertised in 2,400 newspapers on its debut and the news releases of American Motors positioned it as intended for buyers who want a sporty fastback that was also comfortable and roomy.

The Marlin was American Motors’ first model after the muscle car launches of the ’60s and the car was meant to outflank rivals as a vehicle they didn’t offer – a strategy now known as “niche marketing”. It was also one of the first American classic cars with front disc brakes as standard.
The Marlin followed the trademark design cues of the Plymouth Barracuda, Mustang 2+2, Ford Galaxie “Sports Roof”, and the 1965 fastback models from GM, including the Chevy Impala “Sport Coupe” models.

Standard equipment included deluxe exterior trim, front and rear center armrests when bucket seats were chosen, individual reclining front seats, and interiors from American Motors’ two-door Ambassador model, including the instrument panel and the dashboard.

1977 Lancia Scorpion
1977 Lancia Scorpion

The Lancia Scorpion is actually an imitation. In Europe it was known as the Beta Montecarlo and had 120 hp, but due to regulations when it came to the U.S., the car’s output dropped to a measly 81 hp. At the time Chevrolet already had the Monte Carlo name in the bag, so it went with Scorpion.

Spider versions of the Montecarlo sported a unique roll-back targa style convertible top that was manually operated. Based on the Abarth 030 prototype, the Montecarlo was known as the X1/8 while in development. It was aimed to be a Fiat-badged sibling to the Fiat X1/9. It had the same mid-engined setup, with a bigger engine and more spacious interior.

The car was handed over to Lancia and was built by Pininfarina in Turin, Italy. Production ran from 1975 to 1979 for the first series (S1). The second series (S2) was launched in 1980 but production ceased the following year.

The American market Lancia Scorpion differed from the Monte Carlo in several ways. It was powered by a smaller engine (1756 cc) because the 1995 cc motor in the Monte Carlo failed to comply with U.S. emissions standards. Due to the decrease in engine size and the installation of smog equipment, the Scorpion’s power output was significantly reduced.

The Scorpion featured semi pop-up headlights and the 1976 cars had solid rear buttresses. All Scorpions had the convertible top, and unlike the Monte Carlo, it only saw one production run. A total of 1,801 of these classic cars were built in 1976.

1965 Plymouth Belvedere II
1965 Plymouth Belvedere II

In 1965, Plymouth decided to make the Fury a full-size car again, so the Belvedere became the marque’s intermediate size offering, though it saw little updates and most dimensions remained the same. The Plymouth Fury was simply enlarged to restore a full-sized range which Plymouth had been lacking.

The Belvedere line was categorized into the Belvedere I, Belvedere II and the potent Satellite subseries. The latter was only offered as a convertible or as a hardtop coupe. These classic cars were powered by the 4.47-liter “LA block” V8 as the standard engine. Additional V8s were also offered including the 318, 361, 383, and the 426-S Wedge Head.

The Belvedere I was available as a station wagon or a 2- and 4-door sedan. The Belvedere II added a convertible and a nine-passenger station wagon.The Satellite convertible was the lineup’s most exclusive bodystyle, with production numbers reaching 1,860 units.

The sales figure was almost matched by the Belvedere II convertible, which saw 1,921 units built for 1965. The most sought after were the four-door sedans, with 35,968 and 41,445 units built for the Belvedere I and Belvedere II, respectively.

For 1965, the Belvedere name was dropped as a level of trim designation. It was used instead on intermediate size cars. Aside from the additional bodystyles, the differences between the Belvedere I and Belvedere II were extra accessories.

The Belvedere I had a heater, defroster, seat belts in the front, and blackwall tires. The Belvedere II came will all the standard equipment on the Belvedere I, plus special trim and upholstery, carpeting, foam cushions, and back-up lights.

1959 DeSoto Firedome
1959 DeSoto Firedome

Everyone knows the sleek and stylish Cadillac Eldorados from the 1950s. The DeSoto Firedome was an equally good-looking car which was often overlooked at the time. Owned by Chrysler, DeSoto manufactured the Firedome from 1952 to 1959.

Under the bonnet of the 1959 DeSoto Firedome was an overhead valve 383 cubic inch V-8 that produced 305 horsepower and 410 lb-ft. of torque. DeSoto offered four bodystyles including a convertible coupe, a two-door Sportsman, a four-door sedan and Sportsman.

Only 299 units of the convertible coupe were sold in 1959, making it the rarest in the Firedome range. The most coveted was the four-door sedan, of which 9,171 examples were produced. A three-speed manual transmission was standard with an automatic offered for an additional cost. Swivel front seats and silver color sweeps were also optional.

Standard list of amenities included all the equipment found in the Firesweep, plus variable speed windshield wipers, back-up lights, wheel covers, rear foam cushions, and carpets in the front and rear. Midway through the production year, the automaker added a padded dash, plaid upholstery, and custom steering wheel.

With an estimated curb weight of 1820 kg, the Firedome was pretty fast, accelerating from zero to 60 mph in 8.5 seconds and topping out 119 miles per hour. Average fuel consumption was rated at 14 miles per gallon.

1962 Studebaker Avanti
1962 Studebaker Avanti

The Avanti is a luxury coupe produced by the Studebaker Corporation from June 1962 to December 1963. The automaker advertised the Avanti as America’s only four passenger high-performance car. It was also described as one of the most important milestones of the postwar auto industry.

The Avanti smashed 29 records at the Bonneville Salt Flats. The first private owner was Rodger Ward who received the car after winning the 1962 Indianapolis 500. The Avanti was officially introduced to the public in April 1962, simultaneously at the Annual Shareholders’ Meeting and at the New York International Automobile Show.

The car was developed under the supervision of Studebaker president Sherwood Egbert. The design theme of the Avanti was the product of sketches Egbert drew casually on a jet-plane flight, 37 days after he became president of the company in February 1961.

Formal design was made by Raymond Loewy’s team of Bob Andrews, Tom Kellogg, and John Ebstein. The Avanti featured a fiberglass body mounted on the modified convertible chassis of the Studebaker Lark Daytona. The car was powered by a modified 289 Hawk engine.

The complex body shape of the Avanti would have been difficult and expensive to build in steel, so Studebaker decided to mold the exterior panels in fiberglass. The work was outsourced to Molded Fiberglass Body in Ashtabula, Ohio. It was the same firm that manufactured the fiberglass panels for the Chevy Corvette in 1953.

1967 DeTomaso Mangusta
1967 DeTomaso Mangusta (Ghia)

The Mangusta is a sports car manufactured and marketed by Italian automaker De Tomaso from 1967 to 1971. The word “mangusta” is Italian for mongoose, an animal known for its ability to kill cobras.
Rumor has it that the car was so named because De Tomaso was engaged in talks with Carroll Shelby about replacing the Shelby Cobra with a racing car to be produced in Italy.

However, no agreements were signed because Shelby became busy with the Ford GT40 racing program. Nonetheless. Argentine-born Alejandro de Tomaso and Carroll Shelby were buddies and business is business, so it was also speculated that the first batch of engines for the Mangusta may have been provided by Shelby.

A total of 401 Mangustas were produced, about 150 of the European model and the rest were the North American version. The first cars were said to have a more potent Ford HiPo 289 cu-in. engine, while the later cars were all powered by Ford 302 engines.

For the European version, the Mangusta was originally equipped with a mid-mounted Ford 289 V8 engine rated at 306 hp. In the North American market, the Mangusta was available with a 221 hp Ford 302 V8, driving through a five-speed ZF transaxle.

Giorgetto Giugiaro was responsible for the design of the car, which is easily distinguished by its gull-wing doors over the engine and luggage compartment. The Mangusta’s independent suspension, all round disc brakes, rack and pinion steering, were ahead of other automakers of the time.

1956 Buick Centurion
1956 Buick Centurion

The Buick Centurion Concept was another GM/Buick car with fighter jet aesthetics. It was introduced to the public at the 1956 Motorama Show. The body had been crafted from fiberglass, while the cabin drew inspiration from the cockpit of an airplane.

The Centurion’s full glass bubble roof was a daring and dynamic design move. The aerodynamic features start up front and graciously flowed through the rest of the car. The two-tone paint job was highlighted by the red interior and white-wall tires.

Power was supplied by a 325 horsepower V8 engine concealed under the long hood which sloped toward the grille. The headlights were were part of the body shell and mounted far behind the bumper. Inside, the passengers receive fresh air through twin air scoops located near the sides.

The rear of the Centurion was just as revolutionary, with its ‘wing-type’ fenders that later appeared on the 1959 Buick and Chevy models. There was also a TV camera in the rear that reported traffic updates to the driver through a TV screen mounted on the dashboard.

The cabin was trimmed in brushed bright metal and red leather. The front seats automatically slide back when a passenger opens the door, offering added space for easy entry and exit.

1964 Sunbeam Tiger
1964 Sunbeam Tiger

The Sunbeam Tiger is a high-performance variant of the British Rootes Group’s Sunbeam Alpine roadster, which had four cylinders compared to the Tiger’s eight. The car was designed in part by legendary American race car driver Carroll Shelby and it was produced from 1964 to 1967.

Shelby had conducted a similar V-8 conversion on the AC Cobra, and at that time he was hoping to be offered the contract to build the Tiger at his factory in the United States. However, Rootes decided to contract the production work to Jensen Motors Ltd at West Bromwich in England, and pay Carroll Shelby a royalty for every car built.

The Tiger was developed with the objective of competing against the Jaguar E-Type, so that tells you a lot right there. Two versions of the Tiger were produced: the Mark I (1964 to 67) which was powered by a 4.3-liter Ford V8; and the the Mark II which came equipped with the bigger Ford 4.7-liter engine.
Two prototypes and highly modified versions of the Mark I were entered into the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans, but neither managed to complete the race. The Tiger also competed in European rallies with some success, and for two years it was the AHRA’s record holder over a quarter-mile drag strip.

Production ceased in 1967 shortly after the Rootes Group was acquired by Chrysler, which didn’t have an engine that could replace the Ford V8. Thanks to the ease and affordability of modifying the Tiger, a few examples have survived in standard form.

1969 Saab Sonnett II
1966 Saab Sonnett II

In the early 1960's, Walter Kern, an engineer at MIT, and Björn Karlström, an aircraft and automotive illustrator, independently proposed a two-seat roadster with Saab parts and a two-stroke engine known as the “Shrike”. Two prototypes were built: the Saab Catherina by Sixten Sason and the Saab MFI13 by Malmö Flygindustri.

After some changes, the MFI13 was put into a limited production run in 1966 as the Sonnett II. A total of 28 units were made at the Aktiebolaget Svenska Järnvägsverkstäderna in Arlöv. All were were left hand drive and equipped with 841 cc three-cylinder two-stroke engines.

Another 230 units were produced in 1967, but as the 2-stroke engine became uncompetitive in the American market, the Ford Taunus V4 was used instead and the model was renamed the Sonnett V4.
Aside from the engine, the Sonnett II and Sonnett V4 share multiple components. Roughly 50 percent of the Sonnett II production survived and had been preserved or maintained by collectors, museums, and race enthusiasts.

The fiberglass body of the Sonnett II was bolted to a box-type chassis and a roll-bar was added to support the hard top. The front hood section moved forward to provide easy access to the engine, gearbox, and front suspension.

When powered by a three-cylinder, two-stroke engine rated at 60 hp, the Sonnett II accelerated from zero to 62 mph in 12.5 seconds, with a top speed of 93 mph. The Sonnett II successfully competed in Sports Car Club of America races against other European roadsters like the Triumph Spitfire and the Austin-Healey Sprite.

1958 Firebird III
1958 GM Firebird III

General Motors built the Firebird III in 1958 and introduced it to the public the following year at Motorama. It was the most influential of the Motorama Firebirds and the only member of the Firebird trio to have a direct impact on the design of GM production vehicles.

It is a lavish concept with a titanium skin and seven short wings and tail fins that went through rigorous wind tunnel testing. It is a two-seater driven by a 225 horsepower Whirlfire GT-305 gas turbine engine. A two-cylinder 10 horsepower gasoline engine powered all the accessories.

The exterior styling features a double-bubble canopy and some technical headway to make it more practical, like air conditioning, cruise control, and anti-lock brakes. The car also featured “Space-Age” innovations like special air drag brakes similar to those found on an aircraft.

The brakes emerge from flat panels in the bodywork to slow down the car from high speeds. Other amenities include an “ultra-sonic” key that opened the doors, and an automated guidance system to help prevent accidents. Steering was controlled through a joystick located between the two seats. This gave the Firebird III a more futuristic feel and mimicked the experience of flying an airplane.

The Firebird III broke several styling rules of legendary GM designer Harley Earl, and this was one of the reasons the car became such an integral design. There were no parallel lines and the car came with very little chrome.

1955 Cadillac LaSalle Roadster II
1955 Cadillac LaSalle Roadster II

The LaSalle Roadster II is a concept car developed by General Motors. During the mid ’50s, some GM executives decided to revive the LaSalle nameplate which was a sister brand to Cadillac. GM design chief Harley Earl was delighted with the idea and instructed his crew at the Art & Colour Section to come up with two different concepts.

One was a small roadster that was introduced alongside a six-passenger sports coupe. Both vehicles were named LaSalle II to signify the reemergence of the brand. Buck Rogers handled the styling of the new LaSalles and he used some bold design cues, together with some features from LaSalle’s production cars.

The concept was officially unveiled at the 1955 GM Motorama. Some of the car’s peculiar traits included a vertical slatted grille, side exhaust, open rear wheels, and floating Dagmar bumperettes. None of these features were worthy of production, but they helped in distinguishing the LaSalle from the car it borrowed a lot from – the Corvette.

GM engineers devised a unibody construction that depended on strength provided by the side sills of the chassis. These helped in containing the exhaust which likely easily overheated the cabin, particularly in the coupe. Sadly, GM installed fake V6 engines with a concept valve train which included dual overhead camshafts.

1955 Chevrolet Biscayne XP-37
1955 Chevrolet Biscayne XP-37

The Biscayne XP-37 was a showcase car for the new 4.3-liter V-8 Chevy engine, which would later play into Corvairs, Corvettes, Eldorados and Rivieras. General Motors touted this 4-door, 4-passenger, pillar-less hardtop as ‘an exploration in elegance.’

Featured in the 1955 Motorama, the car wowed the press and the automotive world in general with its futuristic styling cues. The front end certainly drew the most attention. Whether it looks like Hannibal Lecter’s mask or Bane’s mask, it’s a face that commands a second look.

With a panoramic windshield, a series of vertical grille bars, thin mustache bumpers, long fairings for the headlights, side coves that wrapped around the rear, swiveling front seats, suicide rear doors, and a brilliant Atlantic Green paint job, the Biscayne implied some future Corvette design nuances.

The Biscayne’s wraparound windshield curled into the roofline, which in turn drifted rearward into the triangular-shaped C-pillars. The essence of the Corvair is also apparent, especially in rear views of this concept.

There were no side windows, and the switches for the power windows were dummies as were the instruments. As a matter of fact, aside from some motors and servos that opened the doors on the show floor, there were really no electrical systems. The Biscayne didn’t even have a fuel tank or a conventional car battery.

1974 AMC Javelin AMX
1974 AMC Javelin AMX

The Javelin was introduced for the 1968 model year, but it was only in 1971 that American Motors Corporation launched a marketing campaign, advertising the car as “the closest thing you can buy to a Trans-Am champion.”

By mid 1974, Chrysler had left the pony car market, while Ford decided to replace its original Mustang with a 4-cylinder version. Other pony car manufacturers followed suit and downsized their engines. The big engine option of the Javelin soldiered on until production of the model came to an end in October/November 1974.
 
The 1974 AMX didn’t fare well when compared to the new Camaro, the downsized Mustang II and the Firebird – all of which saw increased sales. Meanwhile, Javelin production hit a second-generation high of 27,696 units, of which 4,980 Javelin-AMX models were built for the final model year.

The cowl-induction fiberglass hood was no longer offered for 1974, and the power output of the 6.6-liter V8 engine dropped by 20 ponies. A new feature was the seatbelt interlock system which prevented the car from starting if the driver and a front passenger were unbuckled.

A number of factors contributed to the demise of the Javelin, primarily the economic situation at the time. Unlike the Camaro and the Firebird, 1974 Javelin models were not exempt from the new front and rear bumper standards.

According to AMC’s estimate, about $12 million would be spent in design and engineering work to revise the bumpers so they would comply with the new standards for 1975. American Motors also launched the new 1974 Matador coupe that competed with the Javelin for “boss” muscle car styling”.

1956 Pontiac Club de Mer

1956 Pontiac Club de Mer

The Club de Mer was an experimental, purpose-built car that was developed by Pontiac for the GM Motorama in 1956 to celebrate the company’s commitment to futuristic design.

The ‘de Mer’ was a two-door sport roadster that integrated innovative styling such as the sleek, low-profile body housing a massive engine, a design trend that was widely used in LSR trials at Bonneville Salt Flats during the 1950's.

A ‘de Mer’ prototype was built and introduced, along with a ¼-scale model, in Miami. As per General Motors’ kill order, it was scrapped in 1958. Only the model owned by Joseph Bortz of Illinois exists today. The model was sold by Bortz for $75,000 to renowned car collector Ron Pratt in 2007 at the Barrett-Jackson Classic Car Auction.

The design of the “de Mer” drew inspiration from contemporary aircraft construction of its time. It featured a stainless steel monocoque, individual windscreens, concealed headlights, a single rear-deck dorsal fin, and an aerodynamic fascia that drifted down from the hood to cover most of the grille.

Also used were two “silver-streaks” that cascaded into low-profile hood scoops. The overall design of the body was a smooth profile, similar to a supersonic jet fighter, with nearly no protrusions or recesses save for the fin and the out-vents on the leading edge of both doors.

Source:  legendaryvideos.com















The largest underground lake in the US is in Craighead Caverns in Tennessee


It seems that simple child’s play discovered the vast caverns of Tennessee. Ben Sands, a 13-year-old boy that was playing in the cave in 1905, stumbled upon an opening and crawled through. What he discovered was a room that was so large, he was unable to see how far it stretched, so he threw mudballs to determine the size of the area.

What he discovered was a room that was so large, he was unable to see how far it stretched, so he threw mudballs to determine the size of the area.

The people back home didn’t believe his “childish story,” so he convinced his father to explore the cave together, but the water had risen, rendering the opening impassable.
Entrance to Craighead "Lost Sea" Caverns
Entrance to Craighead “Lost Sea” Caverns. 
Located between Sweetwater and Madisonville, Tennessee, the Craighead Caverns are famous for The Lost Sea.

The cave is adorned with a waterfall and anthodites (crystal clusters that are known as “cave flowers”) and various stalactites and stalagmites. The caverns were named after a Cherokee Native American chief. Located in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, they were used as a place of gathering by the Cherokee, since many Native American artifacts, jewelry, pottery, and weapons were found.

The caverns were named after a Cherokee Native American chief. Located in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, they were used as a place of gathering by the Cherokee, since many Native American artifacts, jewelry, pottery, and weapons were found.
The Smoky Mountains, viewed from atop Mount Le Conte.
The Smoky Mountains viewed from atop Mount Le Conte.
Later, it had been used as a Confederate mine for saltpeter, a resource necessary for making gunpowder. Sources report an intriguing story about a Union soldier who was assigned to sabotage the Confederate mining operation. He was caught and killed near the gum tree at the entrance of the cave.
Sources report an intriguing story about a Union soldier who was assigned to sabotage the Confederate mining operation. He was caught and killed near the gum tree at the entrance of the cave.
Crystal formation in the caverns. Photo Credit
Crystal formation in the caverns. 
During the 1800's, the cave was used for food storage as well, because of the convenient underground temperature of 14 degrees Celsius. Moonshiners also took advantage of the caverns for clandestine operations of making alcoholic beverages, and one of the large areas was even used for cockfights and as a dance hall in 1915.

Moonshiners also took advantage of the caverns for clandestine operations of making alcoholic beverages, and one of the large areas was even used for cockfights and as a dance hall in 1915.

The bony remains of a Pleistocene jaguar (a feline from a geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago) were found in 1939, by a group of explorers named Jack Kyker and Clarence Hicks. Their find was reported to Dr. W. J. Cameron and W. E. Michael, the then current owners of the cave, and the discovery was quickly submitted to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

Their find was reported to Dr. W. J. Cameron and W. E. Michael, the then current owners of the cave, and the discovery was quickly submitted to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

A famous paleontologist, G. G. Simpson, visited the Craighead Caverns in May 1940, and he recovered additional jaguar bones and made casts of several jaguar footprints on the mud floor of the cave. His excavation and findings are reported in American Museum Novitates and the report contains photographs of the bones and footprints.

His excavation and findings are reported in American Museum Novitates and the report contains photographs of the bones and footprints.
The American paleontologist G. G. Simpson. Photo Credit
The American paleontologist G. G. Simpson. 
The visible surface of the lake measures 800 feet (240 m) long and 220 feet (67 m) wide. It is 4.5 acres at normal “full” capacity, but not even modern technology is capable of precisely assessing the vast reaches of the lake. An exploration that was conducted in the 1970s where cave divers were assigned to explore many rooms that were filled with water, without reaching the end of the cave.
An exploration that was conducted in the 1970s where cave divers were assigned to explore many rooms that were filled with water, without reaching the end of the cave.

More than 13 acres of water have been mapped so far, but the lake’s size still hasn’t been determined. Beneath the calm waters of the four-and-a-half acre lake, divers have discovered an even larger series of rooms completely filled with water. More than 13 acres of water have been mapped so far and still no end to the lake has been found. One diver ventured into the rooms, equipped with a sonar device to measure out the area, but has only found more water.

More than 13 acres of water have been mapped so far and still no end to the lake has been found. One diver ventured into the rooms, equipped with a sonar device to measure out the area, but has only found more water.

Tours are available for this national landmark, as many eager tourists line up; they begin with a ¾ mile round-trip walk on a sloping path walk through the caverns.

The tour guides talk about the caves’ colorful history and geological formations. At the bottom of the cave, there are glass-bottomed boat rides where tourists explore the lake.

Daily tours last about an hour and fifteen minutes.
The visitor's centre - Craighead Caverns. Photo Credit
The visitor’s center – Craighead Caverns. Photo Credit
Craighead Caverns was added to the National Park Service list of National Natural Landmarks in 1974 and it is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as America’s largest underground lake. The wonder is still heavily visited today and the unexplored deeps remain a challenge for adventurers.

Source: vintagenews.com

Tuesday, January 3, 2017

8 Reasons Why 30’s Are Better Than 20’s

Life doesn't end when you're over your 20's! Ok, nobody makes that point, but if they did, you could easily tell them that 30's are even better! Need visual proof? We've got them.

Lifehack has come up with 8 scenarios where 30's beat 20's by a long shot. From figuring out your individual style to understanding what friendships and relationships are all about. Even if you're in this position right now and feel a bit lost, don't worry and don't push yourself too much, because there aren't many things that time couldn't fix.

Now get down there and vote for the ultimate truth of how 30's kicks 20's butt!

#1 
20s Vs 30s 

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20s Vs 30s 

#3
20s Vs 30s 

#4
20s Vs 30s 

#5
20s Vs 30s 

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20s Vs 30s

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20s Vs 30s 

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20s Vs 30s

Source: boredpanda.com

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

12 Fastest Cars Under $40,000

 Ford Focus ST
12. Ford Focus ST ($23,625)

Ford has become for the most part rave surveys for its Focus ST hot trapdoor. Only a look at the motor specs is sufficient to get energized. The turbocharged direct-infusion 2.0-liter EcoBoost motor hits a greatest 252 hp and 270 lb-ft of torque.
This force remainder is sufficient to control the Focus ST from 0-60 in 6.6 seconds, as indicated by tests byEdmunds.
Of course, the Mustang might have the capacity to go up against it the open street, yet when there’s a tight parking space around the local area the ST has its number.

Scion FR-S
11. Scion FR-S ($25,470)

Loved by drivers who love performance that doesn’t burn up all available resources, the Scion FR-S flaunts what Toyota’s execution division bests.
The FR-S (and Subaru BRZ, its mirror picture) are outfitted with 2.0-liter motors fit for 200 hp. With the manual transmission, Edmunds took the FR-s from 0-60 in 6.5 seconds, putting it neck-and-neck with the Focus ST.

Infiniti Q50

10. Infiniti Q50 ($37,150)

Refined in appearance but pretty darn quick, the Infiniti Q50 possesses all the necessary qualities for auto significant others of various stripes.
Speed-wise, the Q50 gets its power from the 3.7-liter V6 in the engine. Equipped with 328 hp and 269 lb-ft of torque, that was enough to hustle from 0-60 in 5.5 seconds – superior to the Mustang V6 in Edmunds testing, and looking terribly lovely while doing it.

2015 Dodge Charger R/T
9. Dodge Charger R/T ($30,695)

Could a muscle auto have four doors? Avoid says it’s conceivable and presents the Charger R/T for instance of how it functions. The 2015 model has a somewhat less forceful appearance than the active Charger, yet there is no duping in the force division.
Chargers in the R/T trim house the 5.7-liter Hemi motor that packs a clobber. How quick can 370 hp and 395 lb-ft of torque take this Charger? Edmunds got from 0-60 in 5.4 seconds in back wheel-drive models.


Hyundai Genesis R-Spec
8. Hyundai Genesis R-Spec ($29,350)

When David Mamet utilized Hyundais as a state of mockery in Glengarry Glen Ross (1982), he wasn’t alluding to the Genesis R-Spec. This hot roadster damages with its 3.8-liter V6 motor, equipped with 348 hp.
That powertrain sent the R-Spec from 0-60 in 5.3 seconds in Edmunds testing. With that sort of execution, it is sufficient to give the Alec Baldwin character a keep running for his cash in the BMW he headed to criticize the poor sales representatives in the film.

Nissan 370Z
7. Nissan 370Z ($29,990)

Sporting a 3.7-liter V6 like its corporate kin the Infiniti Q50, the Nissan 370Z shows signs of improvement yield. Truth be told, it crests at 332 hp, which empowers the 370Z to go from 0-60 in 5.1 seconds, as indicated by Edmunds analyzers.
Approaching the five second mark for this sprint is an accomplishment for any ride, however the Nissan 370Z is completing it at a base cost underneath $30,000.

 Subaru Impreza WRX STI
6. Subaru Impreza WRX STI ($26,295)

One of the most undercover speed demons available, the Subaru Impreza WRX STI Subaru conveys excellent velocity for a strict spending plan.
Top execution numbers stand at 305 hp and 290 lb-ft of torque. Edmunds analyzers utilized that power to sprint 0-60 in only 5.1 seconds.
Pending the result of testing on new models in 2015, that may put the WRX STI in the main five under $40K. Here’s the rub: its MSRP is underneath $27K.

Volkswagen Golf R
5. Volkswagen Golf R (est. $34,000)

It may not be available with a cost at press time, yet the feisty 2015 VW Golf R is going to make roughage under $40K. It dons a turbocharged 16-valve inline-four equipped for 290 hp and 280 lb-ft of torque.
Auto and Driver took it 0ut for testing and assessed the 0-60 mph keep running somewhere around 5.0 and 5.3 seconds (quarter-mile somewhere around 13.7 and 13.9 seconds) with a top pace of 130 mph.
Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution GSR
4. Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution GSR ($34,995)

The Mitsubishi Lancer Evo GSR speeds dissimilar to any four-entryway car in this value range. It houses a four-barrel turbo motor fit for 291 hp and 300 lb-ft of torque.
That framework was fit for flying 0-60 in 4.9 seconds amid tests keep running by Edmunds drivers. There is a reason this auto is so famous on the secondary selling. It’s a beast in sedan clothing.


Chevy Camaro SS
3. Chevy Camaro SS ($33,355)

The American muscle auto revival is real. Truth be told, the Detroit automakers (Italian-possessed or not) are bringing every single new model of their fanciful muscle auto set to advertise for the 2015 model year.
Chevy’s Camaro SS is a standout amongst the most touchy models in the sub-$40K value range. It packs a deafening 6.2-liter V8 equipped for 426 hp and 420 lb-ft of torque.
Edmunds analyzers ran the 2014 Camaro 0-60 in 4.8 seconds. This test is liable to audit on roadways all over the area. The SS is unrealistic to lose two races consecutively.

Ford Mustang GT
2. Ford Mustang GT ($32,025)

The redesigned 2015 Ford Mustang made its presentation at function occasions the world over in December 2014, yet the active model is an expert.
Truth be told, the 2014 Mustang GT available stays one of the quickest (if not the speediest) on special beneath $40K.
Donning the 5.0-liter V8, the GT is fit for 420 hp that conveys immaculate thrill. Tests by Edmunds sent the Mustang V8 0-60 mph in 4.7 seconds. Until further notice, this quickening (dollar for dollar) has no equivalent.

2015 Dodge Challenger 392 HEMI® Scat Pack Shaker Fastest Cars
1. 2015 Dodge Challenger With Scat Pack Shaker ($39,490)

Dodge’s way to deal with its muscle auto lineup for 2015 gives off an impression of being “more grounded, quicker, all the more forcing.” This objective took the unimaginably solid Challenger to a much higher yield, assessed at 485 hp and 475 lb-ft of torque from the 6.4-liter V8 with 392 Hemi Scat Pack Shaker alternatives.
That update will make the cost of the 2015 model-year brute go up, yet it will stay reasonable with its MSRP still south of $40K. Obviously, the upgrade in force seems to have the objective of knocking off the 0-60 times of some of Dodge’s top rivals in the muscle auto field.
The automaker trusts this Challenger with vintage Scat Pack Shaker will run 0-60 in 4.5 seconds. No more to muscle past the GT and SS, on the off chance that all works out as expected.

Source:  legendaryvideos.com

10 German Cars That Changed The Automotive Industry

Volkswagen Beetle
VOLKSWAGEN Beetle 1946–2003

The Beetle is a 2-door, rear-engine economy car produced from 1938 to 2003. Nazi Germany leader Adolf Hitler was the first to realize the need for a simple, affordable and functional car to be mass produced in the country.
Some Beetles were built in the 1930’s, but World War II hindered any major production until 1946. After the war, European economies were in tight spots so the Beetle immediately became a success, with the huge demand helping to breathe new life to German manufacturing.
Soon the Beetle also became a hit in America, where it was extremely popular among hippies during the 1960s and 70s. Commonly called the “Bug”, it created a subculture – people build, collect, restore and modify the iconic car to this day.
Mercedes-Benz 300SL

MERCEDES-BENZ 300 SL Coupe/Gullwing 1954–1957

The Mercedes-Benz 300 SL was the fastest production car of its day and the first iteration of the SL-Class GT. It was unveiled in 1954 as a two-seat coupé with gullwing doors.
A roadster version became available in 1957. Built by Daimler-Benz AG, the 300 SL was the first commercially available car to come with fuel-injection. It was based on Mercedes’ carbureted overhead cam straight 6 1952 racer, the W194.
Today, the 300 SL is one of the most sought after Mercedes-Benz cars by avid collectors. It is valued between $1 million and $2.5 million.
Volkswagen Type 2
VOLKSWAGEN Type 2 (Microbus) 1950-Present

The Type 2 is a forward control panel van launched in 1950 by Volkswagen and the marque’s second car design, after the legendary Beetle. It is also known as the Microbus, Transporter or Kombi depending on the body style. The Type 2 is often used as a camper and many models have a pop-up bed that emerges from the roof.
This unique vehicle became an instant favorite among travelers, particularly the hippies in the U.S. By the 1960s they had adopted the VW Type 2 as their official vehicle and called it the “hippie bus”.

BMW 328
BMW 328 1936–1940 

The BMW 328 is a classic sports car produced between 1936 and 1940. Designed by Peter Szymanowski and Fritz Fiedler, the car was presented in 1936 at the Eifelrennen race at the Nürburgring. It was powered by a straight-6 OHV engine mated to a four-speed transmission.
The BMW 328 won hundreds of races, including winning in its class at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1938. Sadly, after World War II, the facility in Eisenach, where the BMW 328 was built, fell to the hands of communist Russia.
All vehicle production adhered to state-direction until the unification of Germany in 1989.

Audi A4
AUDI A4 1994-Present

The Audi A4 is a line of entry-level luxury cars manufactured by the German Volkswagen subsidiary. Audi had been struggling since the 1980s and it is actually the A4 that came to the rescue. The car was originally offered as a sedan or wagon, but later production included a convertible.
The A4 not only revived Audi, it also spawned unexpected competition for other German cars (Mercedes and BMW) in the executive car market. It also holds the distinction as the first model built by the VW Group to feature the new 1.8 liter 20v engine, which is based on a design intended for a super touring race car.

Volkswagen Golf
VOLKSWAGEN Golf 1974-Present

The Volkswagen Golf is a compact family car produced since 1974. It has been marketed across the globe through seven generations and in different body styles and under different nameplates – as the Volkswagen Rabbit in Canada and the U.S., and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico.
In contrast to the Beetle’s rear-engine, rear-wheel drive design, the Golf features a front-engine, front-wheel drive set up that has become the all-time best-selling model of Volkswagen.
It also holds the distinction as the the second best-selling car ever, with more than 30,000,000 units sold worldwide.

Mercedes-Benz SSK
MERCEDES-BENZ SSK 1927–1932

Though Mercedes-Benz has produced many gorgeous German cars, none were as important to the automotive industry as the SSK, or Super Sport Kurz.
This roadster’s remarkable performance and multiple competitive successes solidified its status as one of the most highly regarded cars of its era.
Its supercharged straight 6 produced 200-300 mhps, which was outmatched at the time. The SSK was the last Benz designed by Ferdinand Porsche before he left to establish the Porsche Company.

mercedes-benz-540k-special-roadster-08
MERCEDES BENZ 540K Roadster 1936-1940

The 540K was a roadster designed by Friedrich Geiger and presented at the 1936 Paris Motor Show. The car is popularly purchased as a four-seater coupé or a two-seater cabriolet.
It is also offered as a fully armored stretch limo! Power is delivered by a straight-8 cylinder engine aspirated by twin pressurized updraft carburetors.
A total of 115 hp is directed to the rear wheels via 4-speed or optional 5-speed manual gearbox. The 540K became a favorite of the Nazi party and a custom version with armor plating and extended chassis was given as a gift by Adolf Hitler to Ante Pavelić, a fascist dictator who led the Independent State of Croatia

PORSCHE 911
PORSCHE 911 1963–Present 

The 911 is a two-door, 2+2 sports car produced since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart. Throughout its lifetime, the car has been heavily modified for racing, rallying and other types of competition.
However, its design has only seen minor tweaks in more than 50 years of continuous production.
It is undoubtedly one of the best German cars ever made and has become a legend in its own right. No wonder it ranked fifth on the international Car of the Century poll.

Audi R8
AUDI R8 2007-2014

The Audi R8 was designed, developed and manufactured by Quattro GmbH – the high performance private subsidiary of Audi AG. It is a mid-size, two-seater sports car based on the Lamborghini Gallardo platform and built on an Audi Space Frame, using an aluminium monocoque.
First presented as the Audi Le Mans Quattro Concept Car in 2003, it features Audi’s trademark permanent Quattro All-Wheel Drive system.
Racing models hit the tracks in 2005 while road cars were introduced in 2007. The R8 is also known as the first production car to feature full-LED headlamps.

Source: legendaryvideos.com